Psychological Factors of Parent Involvement
The purpose of this study was to discover Turkish parents' beliefs and perceptions about their involvement in young children's education. Specifically, this study sought to assess Turkish parents': (1) motivational beliefs, including their role activity and self-efficacy beliefs about involvement, (2) perceptions of invitations, including general school and teacher-specific, to be involved, and (3) perceptions of life context variables, including personal knowledge and skills and personal time and energy for involvement activities. This study also explored the impact of demographic characteristics on the psychological factors of parent involvement. The demographic variables in this study included parents' age and gender, parents' income and education levels, parents' marital and employment status, and number of children. The investigator used quantitative research techniques to address the topic. Participants were 374 Turkish parents who had young children. Parents' beliefs and perceptions about their involvement were measured by using the adapted Turkish version of the related Level 1 scales from the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler parent involvement model.