Oral health is an integral part of general health. The oral cavity harbours natural bacteria, biofilm, plaque and various other deposits. It is seen that dental caries and periodontal disease are the major oral health problems and indicators of oral health burden all over the world. Bacterial plaque has been implicated in the etiopathology of both the diseases. Hence, detecting dental plaque can prevent the progression of these diseases at a very early stage. The current topic focuses on the recent advancements in the modalities available for the detection of dental plaque in the oral cavity.