The ICC was established as an international effort to bring to justice individuals accused of crimes of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. As a treaty-based institution, its effectiveness depends largely on a genuine multilateral cooperation with states and regional organisations. The defiance that the African Union has openly expressed recently negatively impacts the Court s achievements on the continent; where victims of serious human rights violations long to see justice. NGOs across Africa have systematically documented and reported human rights violations of international concern and strongly campaigned for the ratification of the Rome Statute. Does this defiance reflect changing perceptions of the Court s legitimacy among NGOs in Africa in general and in Uganda in particular? How do NGOs perceptions of the Court s legitimacy affect the course of events in the search for justice for victims of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity on the continent? Does the idea that a strong AfCHPR can effectively address the need for justice in Africa question the universality of the international justice?