Smoking & Hematological Abnormalities
Cigarette smoking has led to epidemic level increase in the progression of atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The effects of smoking on human health have been investigated for the last hundred years, but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms responsible are yet to be completely elucidated. In the present study, effects of smoking on hematological parameters, inflammatory markers, antioxidants, markers of hemostasis and fibrinolysis were investigated among chronic smokers and compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers. The results of present study indicate oxidative-antioxidants imbalance, low grade inflammatory response; alterations in the markers of reheology, coagulation and endothelial functions, which increase the chances of cardiovascular disorders among smokers. Although these smoking induced effects may persist for many years; most of these alterations return back to normal values within 2-5 years of smoking cessation. Therefore immediate smoking cessation is strongly recommended to smokers as quitting smoking increases life expectancy by reducing the health care risks.