Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Malignant hypertension is a complication of hypertension characterized by very elevated blood pressure, and organ damage in the eyes, brain, heart and/or kidneys. It is considered a hypertensive emergency. The eyes may show retinal hemorrhage, or exudate. A diagnosis of malignant hypertension must show papilledema. The brain shows manifestations of increased intracranial pressure, such as headache, vomiting, subarachnoid, and cerebral hemorrhage. Patients will usually suffer from left ventricular dysfunction. The kidneys will be affected, resulting in hematuria, proteinuria, and acute renal failure.