It is becoming increasingly evident that post-transcriptional regulation has profound impact on when, where, and to what level genes are expressed. Hundreds of RNA-binding proteins and non-coding RNAs mediate post-transcriptional gene regulation - but how they are coordinated and what their RNA targets are remains largely elusive. The development of genome-wide analysis tools enables us now to systematically study the extent and logic of post-transcriptional gene regulation on global scale. In this book, the author André Gerber explains some of these new techniques, which led to the discovery of novel principles of gene expression control such as RNA regulons. He also provides an overview of current knowledge about the implications of RNA-binding proteins and non-coding RNAs in human disease, and the chances and pitfalls towards the development of novel therapeutics. This book is written for everyone with basic knowledge in molecular biology and who wishes to get an introduction into this fascinating field of RNA research.